Sunday, May 17, 2020
Anthropologist Robin Fox states that Ã¢â¬Ëthe study of kinship is to anthropology what logic is to philosophy or nude is to the art, it is the basic discipline to the subjectÃ¢â¬â¢. A part of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s identity comes from the understanding of where they were born and the environment in which they were brought up. These factors provide us with the identity and status of the person. The kin group provides us with sustenance and with social status, which can in turn eventually lead you to a career or a life direction. This knowledge is a form of social knowledge in that it forms a connection and a relationship with others. Kinship has an ordered and systematic approach in every human society. The term Ã¢â¬ËkinshipÃ¢â¬â¢ has been considered to be an area of study as well as the subject of study, of which both form a way of organising knowledge and a set of human relationships. It is one of the more complex systems of culture. Kinship allows individuals to construe their identity, based on real or putative family relations. It is a form that defines the social relationships that have come from the universal human experiences of mating, birth and nurturance. It contains the transmission from one generation to another, and the allocation of certain rights such as the type of occupation of the person, their area of residence, their rights of group membership or their inheritance of property. All human beings have kinship, through which are reflected to other individuals in all different societies.Show MoreRelatedChina s Lost Girls : Blended Family Essay2123 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagestaking courses in Chinese dance and language, insisting that she is very proud of her heritage. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s Lost Girls Kinship In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of most humans in most societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated. Anthropologist Robin Fox states that Ã¢â¬Å"the study of kinship is the study of what man does with these basic facts of life Ã¢â¬â mating, gestation, parenthood, socialization, siblingship
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Imagine the scenario where a man murders his brother and then marries his brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s wife. In William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play Hamlet, this is HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s reality. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s uncle, Claudius, killed his father, Old Hamlet, the king of Denmark, and then his mother, Gertrude, and uncle got married approximately two months later. The effects of these morbid events are substantial on the young princeÃ¢â¬â¢s psyche. Later, the ghost of Old Hamlet appears to Hamlet and commands him to exact vengeance for what Claudius has done and murder the new king. This makes Hamlet desperate for revenge, so intermittently, Hamlet soliloquizes his current state of mind and his plans of revenge to the audience. Hamlets attitude of revenge progresses throughout the play from analytical and indecisive to rash and bloodthirsty because of an increased need to avenge his fathers death before he no longer is able to kill Claudius. After having an inimical conversation with Gertrude and Claudius, in the opening scene of the play, Hamlet is in ruins, grief-stricken, and despairing; the only killing he wants to execute is of himself. Hamlet is in Hell; his mother and uncleÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"oÃ¢â¬â¢erhasty marriageÃ¢â¬ (Shakespeare II, ii, 57) has presided before Hamlet has stopped mourning his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s unexplained and unexpected death. He cries out for death, wishing that Ã¢â¬Å"the Everlasting had not fixed his canon gainst self-slaughter! O God, God!(Shakespeare I, ii, 131-132), yet he know that he must continue to live miserably, in this
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss the performance of an organization operating in any industry across the globe. Answer: Introduction The performance of an organization operating in any industry across the globe, depends on the leadership style implemented in the workplace to a significant extent. The leadership style and decision making skills of the management of the organization is based on a number of factors such as the interpersonal skills, communicational skills, critical thinking skills and collaboration skills. Such a leadership style in the workplace of the organization allows the organization to have high performance in each of its business activities. This essay mentions my reflection on the leadership style, critical thinking, decision making and effective communication in a business and its effects on the performance of the organization. Project background My Capstone project was a business plan developed for an organization starting up in the healthcare industry. The business plan focused on the major business activities of the organization which are healthcare and care management agency. The project was completed based on a number of efficient and effective theories and concepts. Some of the concepts used in the project are strategic planning, lean canvas and business model concept. We will go through some of the real-time implementation of these concepts and theories utilized in the project. Leadership style As I mentioned earlier, the success of an organization in any of the industries across the world significantly depend on the leadership style implemented in the workplace of the organization. There are a number of leadership styles, with their pros and cons, which can be implemented in the workplace of the organization. Some of the leadership styles are democratic leadership, autocratic leadership, transactional leadership and transformational leadership. I will go for the transformational leadership style in the real-time scenario of the start-up organization in the healthcare industry. Transformational leadership Transformational leadership style is quite unique and allows the leaders to influence the followers to a significant amount in the workplace of the organization. I think this type of leadership style is the most effective in any type of workplace as there is high level of communication between the management and the employees in the workplace of the organization. Transformational leadership allows the management or leaders in the workplace of the organization to initiate various changes in the workplace. These changes are also accepted by the followers or the employees in the workplace due to the presence of high communication between the employees and management. The transformational leader plays the role of a role model for all the employees in the workplace of the organization. The employees of the organization are so satisfied with the style of leadership along with the charm of the leader, that they follow the leader through any change or condition. Such a leadership style also allows the presence of a close and strong relationship between the employees and the management of the organization (Foti, 2014). I will follow the transformational leadership style in the real-time workplace of the start-up organization. Ill ensure the presence of strong and close relationship with the employees through effective and frequent communications with the employees. Such effective communicational activities in the workplace of the organization will allow me to have the faith of the employees along with their respect. Ill ensure that I treat all the employees equally irrespective of their differences and will value their opinions irrespective of their differences. Ill ensure that the employees in the workplace are highly motivated through the implementation of effective motivational strategies (Landis, 2014). Ethical leader The leadership style implemented in the workplace of an organization has another factor, which defines the success of the leadership style to a significant extent. This factor in the leadership style of the organization allows the presence of effective work ethics in the workplace of the organization, which in turn leads to the enhancement of the leadership style (Carey, 2013). The presence of work ethics allows the leader in the workplace to be ethical in all the corresponding activities and increases the transparency in the workplace. This in turn leads to the strengthening of the relationships among the employees in the workplace of the organization (Siegel, 2015). Ill ensure the presence of effective work ethics in the workplace of the healthcare organization through the development and implementation of a set of ethical guidelines, which all the employees should follow. These ethical guidelines allow the employees to stay on the path of work ethics and help them in case of various ethical dilemma. The presence of ethical guidelines along with the inclusion of work ethics into the roles and responsibilities of the employees in the workplace will allow the presence of effective work ethics in the workplace of the healthcare organization (Levy, 2013). Critical thinking Critical thinking can be defined as an analysis of a particular problem or scenario to identify and compare various possible solutions. The critical thinking skill also allows an individual to compare all of these possible solutions to determine the best solution to the problem. The implementation of the critical thinking concept in the workplace of the healthcare organization can be ensured through the development of the business plan for the organization by having the focus on critical thinking (Nosich, 2012). I think that the critical thinking skill of the management of the organization allows it to determine the best possible solution to each of the business cases and to implement the most efficient business model for the organization. The critical thinking skill allows the management of the healthcare organization to determine the best possible ways of providing the healthcare services, maintaining the infrastructure of the organization, managing the employees and maintaining th e inventory (Halpern, 2014). Decision making The decision making skills of the management of the organization defines its capabilities to take the efficient decisions in the workplace of the organization. The decision making skills of the management of the organization can also include the feedback, input and opinion of the employees in the workplace. I think the concept of having an informative decision making process leads the organization into the light of success. So Ill ensure the implementation of an efficient database and an effective database management system to gather various information regarding the business processes of the organization. The database and the management system can be clubbed with a number of data analytics frameworks and policies to gain insight into the data. This in turn will allow the healthcare organization to have efficient decision making process in the workplace of the organization (Beach, 2015). Collaboration Collaboration can be defined as the synergy of the teams in the workplace of the organization to work together on the various business activities. The presence of collaboration in the workplace of the organization allows the management of the organization to utilize the resources in an efficient manner. The presence of collaboration also leads to the increase in the performance of both the individuals and the entire organization. Ill ensure the presence of collaboration in the workplace of the healthcare organization through practicing the Agile mindset. The migration of the entire workforce into the Agile mindset will allow the workplace to have effective collaboration among the employees and the management. The presence of the collaboration among the teams can be strengthened by the maintenance of small teams in the workplace along with implementation of a number of information radiators to allow all the business information to be available readily (Wang, 2015). Effective communication Effective communication is one of the most obvious factors of the success of an organization. Ill ensure the presence of the effective communication among the employees and the management through the effective implementation of various communication media like emails, instant chats and video conferencing. The presence of effective guidelines for he communicational activities of the employees also allows the employees to have effective communication among the employees, which in turn leads to the increase in the performance of the organization. The communicational intensity in the workplace of the healthcare organization can be increased through various recreational and team building activities (Thill, 2013). Lean canvas Lean canvas is an adoption of the traditional business model canvas with a few changes. This model allows the development of the business model in keeping the entrepreneurs in focus. There are a few examples of the organizations across the globe, which have attained market success by implementing lean canvas in their workplace. Apple and Skype are two such organizations using lean canvas as their business model generator (Hyvnen, 2014). Ill use the lean canvas to develop the business model for the startup healthcare organization. The business model of the organization will be based on the problem at hand, the possible solution to the problem, the key metrics and competitive advantages over other organizations in the same industry along with the key business activities and resources (Johnson, 2016). Business model concept The business model of an organization defines the business activities and goals of the organization in terms of the value created for the customers of the organization. The business model of the healthcare startup will be based on the healthcare services provided to the customers along with the various products sold to the customers and the quality of the healthcare services. The business model concept allows the organization to develop a concept initially and enhance it through a number of iterations of analysis and comparison (Souto, 2015). Strategic planning The process of strategic planning in the workplace of an organization is based on business plan of the organization to be developed according to the business strategies of the organization. The healthcare startup can develop a business plan according to the organizational goals and strategy to provide high quality of services and products to the customers present in the corresponding market of operation. The strategic planning process also allows the organizational goals to be refined along with the time (Cassidy, 2016). References Beach, L. R. (2014). Decision making in the workplace: A unified perspective. Psychology Press. Carey, M., Green, L. (Eds.). (2013). Practical Social Work Ethics: Complex Dilemmas Within Applied Social Care. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.. Cassidy, A. (2016). A practical guide to information systems strategic planning. CRC press. Foti, R., Hansbrough, T. K., Epitropaki, O., Coyle, P. (2014). Special issue: Dynamic viewpoints on implicit leadership and followership theories. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(2), 411-412. Halpern, D. F. (2014). Critical thinking across the curriculum: A brief edition of thought knowledge. Routledge. Hyvnen, J. (2014). Lean canvas and impact mapping as tools for linking product development to business goalsa case study. Real-Time Value Delivery in Software Engineering, J. Mnch, Ed, 20-27. Johnson, A., Ebben, J. (2016, January). FamDoo Case Study. In United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship. Conference Proceedings (p. CM1). United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship. Landis, E. A., Hill, D., Harvey, M. R. (2014). A synthesis of leadership theories and styles. Journal of Management Policy and Practice, 15(2), 97. Levy, C. S., Slavin, S. (2013). Social work ethics on the line. Routledge. Nosich, G. M. (2012). Learning to think things through: A guide to critical thinking across the curriculum. Siegel, J. H., Korniewicz, D. M. (2015). . Exploring Leadership Theories for Advanced Practice Nurses. Nursing Leadership and Management. Souto, J. E. (2015). Business model innovation and business concept innovation as the context of incremental innovation and radical innovation. Tourism Management, 51, 142-155. Thill, J. V., Bove, C. L., Chatterjee, R. B. (2013). Excellence in business communication. K. Subramanian (Ed.). Pearson. Wang, X., Vincent, N., Newman, L., Baldwin, T., Riep, J. (2015). Transforming organizations through new partnerships, collaboration, and agile development: project briefing, CNI spring 2015 membership meeting, Seattle, Washington.
Sunday, April 19, 2020
Kalkidane Yeshak Life of Pharaoh Hatshepsut Despite a queen's relative high status, many people thought that it was wrong and improper for a woman to rule. Through old, antiquated beliefs, people deemed a woman unworthy of a leadership position no matter her qualifications. So as Pharaoh, Hatshepsut had to spend her reign making sure her position was secure and fought for her place as a legitimate ruler. At the age of 12, after the death of Tuthmose I, Hatshepsut became queen to Tuthmose II, her half-brother. After the death of Tuthmosis II, the power passed over to her young stepson, Tuthmosis III. She also had a daughter named Neferu-Ra. This stepson was fathered by Tuthmose II with his concubine named Isis because Hatshepsut couldn't bore a son. The stepson of Hatshepsut had to be given the throne. Since Thutmose lll was too young to assume the throne without any aid, Hatshepsut served as his regent. She surprised everyone by declaring herself the role Pharaoh during the 18th dynasty, known as the New Kingdom from 1473 BC to 1458 BC, and became one of only a handful of female rulers of Ancient Egypt. Hatshepsut reigned longer than any other known female pharaoh. Although many thought that she became pharaoh because of ambition, many scholars have said that it also could have been because of threats and or political crises that were threatening her royal lineage and throne. So, thi s way she could save the throne for both herself and her stepson Thutmose lll. Knowing how limited her power is as a female and how she had gotten that power under special circumstances, she had to defend her legitimacy by pointing out and claiming that her father had appointed her as his successor. She wanted to reinvent her image, so she ordered to be portrayed as a male pharaoh in the statues and paintings of that time; with a beard and large muscles. She also relied heavily on propaganda to strengthen her reign. She ordered carvings on her temple walls that depicted how the god Amen, kings of gods; had taken her father's appearance on the day he had conceived her. This made her daughter of the chief of all Egyptian gods. As pharaoh she did many things from organizing a trade expedition to overseeing many ambitious building projects. The trade expedition to the land of Punt, after which they became major trade partners. Their partnership helped supply Egypt with many gold, resin, wild animals, and other vast riches. All of which helped make her reign prosperous and her empire wealthy and peaceful. She didn't do all this work by herself, she surrounded herself with supporters that were in her government. This included Senenmut, who was her chief master. Some even say that he could have been more than just moral support, but there is little evidence to support the claim that they might have been lovers. She is noted for having sent five ships to punt to open trade, and those five ships returned with 30 myrrh trees among many other gifts. Legend has it that she turned the first charred myrrh into eyeliner. Queen Hatshepsut had a temple built in Deir el Bahri, called Djeser-Djeseru, where she was buried and many of her stories were carved into the walls. Though her temple was not the first to be built there it was notably the largest. The walls are illustrated with many images, telling an autobiography, one which was the story of the expedition to Punt. Archeologists have discovered intact roots of the frankincense roots, the roots of the trees she brought back from Punt (Modern Day Eritrea or Somalia). Sadly, her beautiful temple today is not as intact as it was before, due mostly to the fact that after she had dies her stepson Thutmose lll had tried to erase every sign of her existence. He had her name chiseled off, along with many images of her, and had built a large temple to the west of Djeser-Djeseru. It was further damaged by later dynasties as well as tomb plunderers. Although many Egyptologists have claimed that her foreign policy was mainly peaceful. It is possible that she led military campaigns against Nubia (region along
Sunday, March 15, 2020
A case study of a dying monopoly Abstract A case study of a dying monopoly ). To this end, there is mandatory Russian stipulations that force Gazprom to share their pipline with other providers,Ã in an attempt to provide a balanced and inclusive business format. Studies suggest that this practice of resource sharing is heavily dominated by the Gazprom Company denying many legitimate requests (Kupchinsky 2013).Ã This argument highlights the difficulty internal competition has faced in the Gazprom monopoly. The unrestricted use of resources allowed Gazprom to leverage their initial state sanctioned domination of the regional oil industry into a full-fledged monopoly following the transition to the Russian state (Kupchinsky 2013). The Kremlin disputes the existence of a monopoly and it is common for the government to make use of Gazprom as a weapon of sorts (Macey 2013). This fact has spawned the modern opposition to any benefit to the company. The combination of political leverage, infrastructure control and raw power has allowed the company to monopoli ze the Russian Market (Tsygankova 2012). The continued operation of this monopoly has been a benefit as a stabilizing force in Russian development (Macey 2013).Ã Others argue that this single power has inhibited true development and has instead crippled the entire regional industry (Kupchinsky 2013). 3. Modern Environment Tucker (2013) argues that the emergence of unconventional energy sources is weakening the hold that Gazprom has had over their traditional consumers.Ã This view illustrates the move away from the few energy mega suppliers, towards a more regionally sufficient international world. Others cite the lack of adaptability in the decline of GazpromÃ¢â¬â¢s market presence (Krauthamer, Caloianu, Tsintsadze and Boissevain 2012). This speaks more to the out dated mode of management and innovation as factors for the weakness perceived in the modern Gazprom establishment.Ã Areas such as Shale Gas are increasing the capacity of countries including China and the United States to offset the power of the Russian company (Cohen 2012).Ã The increase in alternatives hastens the break up in the Gazprom monopoly in a very real manner. Others give Gazprom the opportunity to avail themselves of emerging technology to extend their current position in the market (Krauthamer et al 2012). Competition both at home and abroad are another factor that is causing Gazprom to be perceived as weak (Locatelli 2013). The basic competitive nature of the Russian economy has emerged as regional competitors appear, taking critical consumer resources away from Gazprom. However, others cite the political needs of the government to encourage innovation, as the primary reason behind Gazproms decline (Ibid).Ã An example of the regional issues is illustrated in the fact that rival Russian gas producers have begun to actively take market share away from Gazprom (Lunden, Fjaertoft, Overland and Prachakova 2013). Unheard of less than a decade ago, this action from within Russia is a symptom of the decay of the Gazprom model. International issues are credited with further weakening the company assets in the form of antitrust suits brought by the European Commission (Kupchinsky 2013). With active legal ramifications, the day to day business has been adversely impacted, making the necessary adaptations to the international market hard to maintain. A conclusion of guilt in the antitrust case would bring about a serious change to the entire European UnionÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive marketplace, further fracturing the Gazprom monopoly (Sartori 2012). Swinn (2013) argues that the primary attacks on the Gazprom monopoly are due to the recognition of alternatives to producing profit in the energy sector. The need to increase the amount of revenue in the region is said to require a recalibration of former institutions.Ã Others cite politics as the element that is considered a primary component of the dissolution of Gazprom (Shadrina and Bradshaw 2013).Ã In a Ã further blow to the once iron clad Gazprom monopoly the Russian government has reached out to other nations in order to enhance energy cooperation which in turn is aimed at improving and reducing cost. Alongside these external political concerns, still others argue that it is the current trend of institutional reform inside of Russia that is GazpromÃ¢â¬â¢s largest antagonist (Belyi 2103).Ã In every case, it the consensus that change and transition is needed in order to meet the requirements of the next generation. 4. Future Implications The overall position of perceived deterioration within the Gazprom model is evident from the emerging pattern of regulatory, consumer, market and regional competition (Adam and Alexander 2013). Ã Many separate issues confront the company, with a majority of the evidence seeking the fundamental dissolution of the Gazprom entity. There is no single factor that can be credited with weakening the company to the state that it is currently (Anni 2013). It is the combination of multiple factors that range from internal regional concerns, to widespread technological advances that are serving to outdate their current business model. 5. Conclusion Mega energy concerns are swiftly becoming icons of a past age. Gazprom, once a state run entity turned international powerhouse has been impacted by the evolution of technology and lack of internal adaptation. Despite their well-developed supply chain, both upstream and downstream, the inability to adapt to the needs of the modern market are allowing competitors to close the distance between them. Factors that include new forms of energy that Gazprom is unprepared to dominate, to political change, to emerging internal and external competitors that are actively undermining their market share have eroded the perceived invulnerable monopoly once held by the company. In the end, as with all things, the market is calling for a transition to a more efficient business model in order to sustain operations.Ã As Gazprom is demonstrating, the decline of mega monopolies allows competitors the potential to guide the next generation of Russian energy. 4. References Belyi, A. 2013. Institutional trends in RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s oil and gas sectors.Ã The Journal of World Energy Law \ Business, 6 (3), pp. 163178. Bos, M. 2012. GAZPROM: RUSSIAÃ¢â¬â¢S NATIONALIZED POLITICAL WEAPON AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EUROPEAN UNION. Cardais, S., Silady, A. and Er. 2013. Around the Bloc: EU Goes After Gazprom, Bailout Looms Amid Slovenian Political Row.Ã Transitions Online, (10/08). Cohen, A. 2012. The Rise of Shale Gas and LNG and its Impact on Europe and Russia. 7 p. 2012. Krauthamer, K., Caloianu, I., Tsintsadze, N. and Boissevain, J. 2012. Around the Bloc: Ukraine Opposition Flexes Muscles, Putin Unveils Friendly Human Rights Council.Ã Transitions Online, (11/20). Kupchinsky, R. 2013. Russia: Gazprom A troubled Giant.Ã Radio Free Europe, 11 (1), pp. 1-3. Locatelli, C. 2013. The Russian gas industry: challenges to theGazprom model. Lunden, L., Fjaertoft, D., Overl and Prachakova, A. 2013. Gazprom vs. other Russian gas producers: The evolution of the Russian gas sector.Ã Energy Policy, 61 pp. 663670. R\Oe, A. 2013. European Commission\ s Antitrust Investigation against Gazprom-Implications for the Energy Security of Russia and the European Union. Sartori, N. 2013. The European Commission vs. Gazprom: An Issue of Fair Competition or a Foreign Policy Quarrel?. Shadrina, E. and Bradshaw, M. 2013. Russias energy governance transitions and implications for enhanced cooperation with China, Japan, and South Korea.Ã Post-Soviet Affairs, (ahead-of-print), pp. 139. Swinn, E. 2013. POLITICS OR PROFITS? GAZPROM, THE KREMLIN, AND RUSSIAN ENERGY POLICY. Tsygankova, M. 2012. An evaluation of alternative scenarios for the Gazprom monopoly of Russian gas exports.Ã Energy Economics, 34 (1), pp. 153161. Tucker, A. 2012. The New Power Map.Ã Foreign Affairs, 19. Zhavoronkov, S. 2013. The Political and Economic Results of February 2013.Ã Journal of Russian Economic Developments, (3), pp. 58.
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Antibodies - Essay Example It is used in the manufacture of unsaturated polyester resins and is used as solvent for surfactants, paints and cleaning agents1. It is also used as antifreeze for de-icing aircrafts at airports as it lowers the freezing point of water. Recent applications include use as a humectant and a preservative. It is used in cosmetics, pharmaceutical preparations and also in electronic cigars2. The structure of 1,2-Propanediol comprises of three carbons with a stereogenic center at the central carbon3. It exists in two racemic forms: S and R as shown in figure 1 below. Figure 1: Chemical structure (S and R form) of 1,2-propanediol 3 1,2-Propanediol as well as 1,3-Propanediol can be manufactured though bioengineered microorganisms. By turning on and off some genes, it is possible to make the microorganism overproduce a specific metabolic product. As shown in figure 2, the intermediate metabolism of Escherichia coli can be shifted to produce 1,2 and 1,3-propanediol using enzymes such as aldose reductase from rat lens, E. coli glycerol dehydrogenase and Klebsiella pneumoniae glycerol dehydrogenase and 1,3-propanedioloxidoreductase4. There are various biochemical pathways through which 1,2-propanediol can be produced. Figure 2: Metabolic pathway engineering of E. ... It was shown that E. coli can grow on the L-fucose and L-rhamnose deoxy sugars as sole carbon and energy sources resulting in the production of propanediol. The first instance of metabolic engineering to produce 1,2-propanediol was when Altaras and Cameron metabolically bioengineered the 1,2-propanediol pathway in E. coli7. In 1999, they reported that E. coli that overexpressed methylglyoxal synthase gene produced 1,2-propanediol. Expression of methylglyoxal synthase or glycerol dehydrogenase led to anaerobic production of around 0.25 g of 1,2-propanediol per liter. The yield was found to be higher both the enzymes were coexpressed7. The development After their first report of the production of 1,2-propanediol from metabolically engineering E. coli, Altaras and Cameron again in 2000 published another report. This time they reported enhanced production of 1,2-propanediol8. They investigated three methods. First method involved the elimination of lactate byproduct. The second method in volved the construction of a complete pathway from dihydroxyacetone phosphate Ã¢â¬â an intermediate of the glycolytic cycle. The third method involved bioprocessing improvements through fed-batch fermentation using the best bioengineered strains. They were able to successfully produced a final yield of 0.19 g of 1,2-propanediol per gram of consumed glucose. Many later studies have investigated the production of 1,2-propanediol by metabolically engineered bacteria. Berrios-Rivera, San and Bennett studied the effects of various cofactor manipulations on the production of 1,2-propanediol9. They used sugars that were similar to glucose and that can be fed into glycolysis for pyruvate production. The sugars used had different oxidation
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
Sigmund freud - Essay Example The theory carries with it some weighty assumptions. One is that, we as individuals, know components of psyche, we know about the brain and also the nervous system. The second assumption is that we know how we act unconsciously. Hence psychoanalysis studies the suppression of some of the basic instincts (Freud 1937). According to Freud this suppression is constant and ongoing. Psychoanalysis may speed up the rates at which clients get better. It is also vital to note that, the nature of psychoanalysis creates a power imbalance, between the physician and the client. The id can be termed to be the most valuable part of the psyche. It usually contains urges that are extremely primitive. It is comprised of all the basic biological urges. A good example of some of this urges are hunger, thirst and sex. This part of psyche usually seeks pressure blindly. It does not care about the consequences; its aim is to seek instant gratification. Ego is developed from the id. It seeks to satisfy the id; it does so in a precise practical manner. It decides whether or not satisfaction is appropriate, and if favourable with the outside world. Commonly the ego is called self since it has the capability to look after itself. The superego is the third portion of the psyche; it develops with maturity. It has the sole responsibility of deeming the personÃ¢â¬â¢s actions good or bad. For Freud, there is a constant conflict between demands of the instincts and the demands of the society (Freud 1937). This can be caused by some of the impulses that may be hidden or even denied for lengths of time. However, this demands, in one way or another, reasserts themselves. The inner conflict is usually unknown and hence, it appears in thoughts and deeds that appear to be irrational. Psychologists that use psychoanalysis often see their patientÃ¢â¬â¢s problems as rooted in the unconscious part of
Friday, January 31, 2020
Shawshank Redemption Essay The literary works such as novels, plays and short stories, have long inspired moviemakers to create films. Films based on these literary works usually draw more attention of the movie audiences or critics than the one not based on them. If a literary work is not well adapted into a film, a number of critics and viewers willingly rise to fulminate at its filmmakers for degrading the essence of its literary work. Also, a lot of people who read a book first usually have a certain bias that a movie inspired by it would not be any better than the book. Even though a film does achieve a superb adaptation from a literary work, many of them still tend to be more loyal to the book than the movie. Certainly, in order to dramatize the literary work and deliver its essence to the audiences in a limited time, a filmmaker has to change many of its detail settings and eliminate unnecessary characters. In addition, a screen writer has to simplify emblazoned descriptions of the book and rewrite it as dialogues to fit in the film through the process of the adaptation. In this process, there is the transformation from the language of words to the language of images. So, what is lost, and what is gained? A good way of finding an answer to this is to compare the film adaptation of the book with its original literary work that is the basis for the film. Novella, Rita Hayworth and Shawshank and Movie, The Shawshank Redemption Stephen KingÃ¢â¬â¢s short story, Rita Hayworth and Shawshank, in Different Seasons, one of his collections published in 1982, is what the film, The Shawshank Redemption produced in 1994, is based upon. The movie, directed by Frank Darabont, is presented as if it is Ellis Boyd ReddingÃ¢â¬â¢s (Morgan Freeman) story telling about Andy Dufresne (Tim Robins) convicted of murdering his wife and her lover. Ellis Boyd Redding, simply called Red, is a lifetime convict of Shawshank prison, telling you about DufresneÃ¢â¬â¢s stay at Shawshank from his arrival to his escape. On the other hand, the novella is a little bit different format from that of the film. It is presented as a form of a document written by Red. He is looking back over twenty-five-year period of time, while writing, so the things that he described in the document have already happened. Due to this, the story is written as if it is told from someone. Basically, both the film and the book are very similar in terms of the story line. Even though there is the similarity of the plot, the film captivates the viewer more than that of the novella that seems to drag out for quite a bit. In fact, Frank DarabontÃ¢â¬â¢s adaptation of Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption seems to convert an ordinary literary work into a cinematic masterwork. There are several elements that make it possible. The movie eliminates inessential characters to position major characters better, slightly modifies the story line and dialogue to strengthen the essence of the novella. In addition, it changes the role of certain characters to solidify their views. Overall, in The Shawshank Redemption, Darabont accomplishes a resplendent adaptation from the novella. Now, I would like to analyze what is gained and lost in the process of adaptation, comparing the both works in terms of these elements. Solidification of the Role of Certain Characters by Eliminating Inessential Characters If you read the book and watched the film, you would notice that there were many characters excluded from the book because they were simply not taking essential parts of the movie. They are only mentioned for a couple of times to explain a certain situation from the view point of Ellis Boyd Redding, who tells the story about Andy Dufresne and left behind the story soon. Darabont takes a resolute action to cut out these characters. In the book, while AndyÃ¢â¬â¢s serving in Shawshank, there is a constant change of different wardens who control the prison. By eliminating all the wardens, he removes a group of unnecessary characters at the same time. For example, there are several cruel, merciless wardens in the book; George Dunahy, Greg Stammas, and Samuel Norton (Bob Gunton). However, Dunahy does not even exist in the film, and neither does Stammas who was also a former guard in Shawshank. During AndyÃ¢â¬â¢s stay in the prison, the role of all wardens transformed and solidified into the last warden Norton. In the movie, Darabont only uses one warden, Norton to superintend Andy for the whole time of his stay in the Shawshank. If there was a frequent change of wardens in the film during AndyÃ¢â¬â¢s stay it would have confused the audiences, providing different focus to new wardens with their different characteristics. Another example is a brutal, cold-blooded guard, Byron Hadley (Clancy Brown). His role in the book seems obtrusive only in the part that Andy dare tries talking to him to save his tax payment when there is the roof sealing project on the rooftop of the prison. Then, soon later, he is retired from the prison in the middle of the story. Byron Hadley had gone two years earlier. The sucker had a heart attack and took an early retirement. (55) In the film, however, his role has always been a captain of the all guards during AndyÃ¢â¬â¢s stay, substituting for all chief guards from the book. Furthermore, his overall role of the film is much more prominent than that of the book. In other words, his role represents the Shawshank as a severe, notorious prison where cold-hearted guards watch over every movement of each prisoner. Instead of showing a number of vicious wardens and guards from the book, Darabont focuses on only these two major villainous characters, eliminating unnecessary characters. In addition, it ultimately provides the audiences time to develop the hatred and indignity against warden for numerous, evil and immoral deed they do. Not only wardens and guards but also some inmates in the book are eliminated as well in the film. For instance, there are three different prisoners, Sherwood Bolton, Ernie, and Brooks Hatlen, in the book. Unfortunately, Sherwood Bolton is gotten rid out of the film. He is a person who raises a crow named Jake until released from the prison. Maybe they set you loose someday, butÃ¢â¬ ¦ well, listen: I knew this guy, Sherwood Bolton, his name was, and he had this pigeon in his cell. From 1945 until 1953, when they let him out, he had that pigeon. He wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t any Birdman of Alcatraz; he just had this pigeon. Jake, he called him. (26) Ernie, a sweeper of the cellblock, is another prisoner who used to do Red a favor only in the book by delivering contrabands such as a rock hammer which Andy asked Red for. Early the next morning, twenty minutes before the wake-up horn went off, I slipped the rock-hammer and a package of Camels to Ernie, the old trusty who swept the Cellblock 5 corridors until he was let free in 1956. He slipped it into his tunic without a wordÃ¢â¬ ¦ (31) The last person, Brooks Hatlen, has been a librarian in the prison for about 25 years. When he is paroled, Andy takes over his position in the library. A year later he is out from the Shawshank, he died in his home according to the book. He was working in the library then, under a tough old con named Brooks Hatlen. Hatlen had gotten the job back in the late twenties because he had a college educationÃ¢â¬ ¦ In prison, Brooksie had been a person of some importance. He was the librarian, an educated manÃ¢â¬ ¦ I heard he died in a home for indigent old folks up Freeport way in 1953. (49) However, in the film, all three characters are taken the role of one person, Brooks Hatlen (James Whitmore), who eventually enables Darabont to eliminate first two characters as well as place more weight on the character of Hatlen in the film. In fact, the book makes him a headstrong person with no dialogue and no depth. On the other hand, the movie alters his character into a gentle, emotional person to make the audiences sympathize with him. After released, he hangs up himself, dramatizing it to be one of the grievous scenes in the film as well as emphasizing on what Red means by Ã¢â¬Å"institutionalizedÃ¢â¬ : Ã¢â¬Å"First you hate them, then you get used to them. Enough time passes you get so you depend on them. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"institutionalized. They send you here for life. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s exactly what they take. Part that counts, anyway. Ã¢â¬ There is also a very distracting character in the book, among various inessential characters eliminated in the film; Normadden. But in all that time Andy never had a cellmate, except for a big, silent Indian named Normaden (like all Indians in The Shank, he was called Chief), and Normaden didnÃ¢â¬â¢t last long. (54) Normaden was moved out, and Andy was living in solitary splendor again. 55) In the book, Andy shares a room with Normadden, a native Indian cellmate for a short period of time. If his character was appeared in the film, it would detract the view of the audiences from the mysterious character of Andy who spends most of his time enjoying being alone. In the film, moreover, he might have been left as a latent character which no one would pay attention to. Modification of Certain Plots and Dialogues Fat-Ass keeps blubbering and wailing. Total freak-out. Hadley draws his baton, gestures to his men. Open it. A GUARD unlocks the cell. Hadley pulls Fat-Ass out and starts beating him with the baton, brutally raining blows. Fat-Ass falls, tries to crawl. The place goes dead silent. All we hear now is the dull THWACK-THWACK-THWACK of the baton. Fat-ass passes out. Hadley gets in a few more licks and finally stops. This is what happens on the first day of AndyÃ¢â¬â¢s stay in the prison. It almost delivers the audience an infernal atmosphere of the Shawshank prison. In the book, on the other hand, almost nothing about AndyÃ¢â¬â¢s first day in the prison is presented although Red later mentions how new comers cry in tears at first night. First-timers usually have a hard time adjusting to the confinement of prison life. They get screw-fever. Sometimes they have to be hauled down to the infirmary and sedated a couple of times before they get on the beam. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not unusual to hear some new member of our happy little family banging on the bars of his cell and screaming to be let outÃ¢â¬ ¦ and before the cries have gone on for long, the chant starts up along the cell-block: Ã¢â¬Å"Fresh fish, hey little fishie, fresh fish, fresh fish, got fresh fish today! Ã¢â¬ Andy didnÃ¢â¬â¢t flip out like that when he came to The Shank in 1948, but thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not to say that he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t fell many of the same things. (93) Even though this scene of Hadley beating a fat new prisoner to death is not in the book, but only created in the film, it seems a good representation of the Shawshank. Another example is the way Andy is getting out of gang rape from Bobs Diamond (Mark Rolston) and their Ã¢â¬Å"Sisters. Ã¢â¬ In the film, when Diamonds fails to let Andy submit to him, Andy rather contempt his ignorance, so he ends up with being beaten. After the mobbing, when Diamonds returns to his cell, a captain guard Hadley clubs him to severe injury because he cannot save his tax without Andy. Eventually, Diamonds is transferred to another prison for serious injury, which gives the audiences some sort of a justice at the moment. In the book, however, Red describes Andy might bribe guards to gets rid of Bogs. Bogs Diamonds left off that summer, all at once. That was strange thing. Bogs was found in his cell, badly beaten, one morning in early June, when he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t show up in the breakfast nose-count. He wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t say who had done it, or how they had gotten to him, but being in my business, I know that a screw can be bribed to do almost anything except get a gun for an inmateÃ¢â¬ ¦ A guard could have been bribed real easy to let someone Ã¢â¬â may be two or three someones Ã¢â¬â into the block, and, yes, even into DiamondÃ¢â¬â¢s cellÃ¢â¬ ¦ IÃ¢â¬â¢m not saying it was Andy Dufresne, but I do know that he brought in five hundred dollars when he came, and he was a banker in the straight world- a man who understands better than the rest of us the ways in which money can become power. 35) Although this part in the book may be more realistic to the truth, if it was directly adapted into the movie, it would not have the same impact to the audiences. There is a dramatic example of plot and dialogue change; when Tommy Williams (Gil Bellows) is killed by Hadley on the Norton order. Williams is happened to tell Andy that the Elmo Blatch (Bill Bolender) is the guy who murdered his wife and her lover. Although Andy has a chance to get a new trial with his testimony, Norton rather put him into the solitary, not giving him a chance for a new trial. In the meantime, Norton transfers Williams to the light security prison in a different county for concealing the information that can give Andy a new trial and release him. Ã¢â¬Å" This is a dialogue that Norton and Andy have in NortonÃ¢â¬â¢s office after Andy is done with a month of solitary stay that Norton ordered. It is because Andy mentioned a word Ã¢â¬Å"obtuseÃ¢â¬ to the attitude of Norton who does not concern his chance of new trial. However, in the film, the sequence is a little bit transformed into a different place. In other words, this is not what happened to Williams. Norton tries to let him forget about his hope and chance of new trial and release. The similar dialogue scene in the book is shot at a solitary where Andy has already been served for a month in the movie. Even though Norton orders Hadley to shoot Willams at the prison yard when he does not notice it, he lies to Andy that he is killed because of his escape. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure by now you heard. Terrible thing. A man that young, less than a year ago trying to escape, broke Captain HadleyÃ¢â¬â¢s heart to shoot him. Truly it did. We just have to put it behind us. Move on. Ã¢â¬ This scene makes the audience harden their hatred for the warden and loathe brutality of his character more. Transformation of this part eventually strengthens the vicious character of Warden and Hadley, making the audience impossible to feel sympathy for them. This sequence in the film is significant because it leads Andy to feel extremely resentful, igniting him to escape whereas the dialogue in the book simply does not carry such an allusion of his escape at the moment. As the story towards the ending, there is more heart-twisting in the film than in the book, especially when the audiences make an assumption that Andy commits suicide. It is because Andy talks strangely, bringing up Mexico, Red is told Heywood gave Andy a length of rope, and a guard is walking up to look for Andy in the next morning roll call. Then, when the guard finds that Andy escaped, it almost feels like the load off. A MAN is meticulously stripping the old paint and varnish by hand, face hidden with goggles and kerchief mask. Red appears b. g. , a distant figure walking out across the sand, wearing his cheap suit and carrying his cheap bag. The man on the boat pauses. Turns slowly around. Red arrives with a smile as wide as the horizon. The other man raises his goggles and pulls down his mask. Andy, of course. They hug each other. Ending with a panorama view of the blue vast ocean, the audience is finally able to feel relieved and happy for Andy and Red meeting up together. As other examples of plot changes, this scene is also never described in the book. At the end of the book, Red writes, like he says in the film, Ã¢â¬Å"I hope the Pacific is as blue as it has been in my dreams. I hope. Ã¢â¬ (107) In fact, the Pacific is only as blue as the reader thinks and as beautiful as Red expects it to be. In other words, the end of the novella makes the reader hope more that Red makes it to Zihautanejo and meets Andy, ending with Ã¢â¬Å"I hope. Ã¢â¬ This is absolutely what is gained in the film, but lost in the book. Like many other films inspired by their original literary works, the film, The Shawshank Redemption, is also inspired by the novella, Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption written. Basically, the movie is based on the language of Stephen King, but through Frank DarabontÃ¢â¬â¢s adaptation of the novella, we see the transformation from the language of words to the language of images in his film. As for the question earlier, Ã¢â¬Å"what is gained and lost? Ã¢â¬ in the process of this transformation, Darabont answers through his movie. His adaptation presents some changes that strengthen the movie without any digression from the original literary work. In fact, the overall essence of the story is described better by the movie. Elimination of unnecessary characters, alteration of the role of certain characters, and modification of certain plots and dialogues make it possible. As a matter of fact, despite these alterations, the differences between both works do not seem much disturbing in terms of the story line after all. Maybe this is what Robert Altman means by Ã¢â¬Å"Cinematic equivalents of literary material manifest themselves in unexpected ways. Ã¢â¬
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Representative Jesse L. Jackson, Jr. began service in the United States House of Representatives on December 12, 1995, as he was sworn in as a member of the 104th Congress, the 91st African American ever elected to Congress. Representative Jackson currently sits on the House Appropriations Committee, serving on the Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education as well as the Subcommittee on Foreign Operations, Export Financing, and Related Programs. Prior to his congressional service, Representative Jackson served as the National Field Director of the National Rainbow Coalition. In this role, he instituted a national nonpartisan program that successfully registered millions of new voters. He also created a voter education program to teach citizens the importance of participating in the political process, including how to use technology to win elections and more effectively participate in politics. Having been born in the midst of the voting rights struggle on March 11, 1965, Representative Jackson spent his twenty-first birthday in a jail cell in Washington, D.C. for taking part in a protest against apartheid at the South African Embassy. He also demonstrated weekly in front of the South African Consulate in Chicago. Representative Jackson had the privilege of sharing the stage with Mr. Nelson Mandela during his historic speech to the world following a 27-year imprisonment in Cape Town. In 1987, Representative Jackson graduated magna cum laude from North Carolina A & T State University in Greensboro, North Carolina, where he earned a Bachelor of Science Degree in Business Management. Three years later, he earned a Master of Arts Degree in Theology from the Chicago Theological Seminary, and in 1993, received his Juris Doctorate from the University of Illinois College of Law.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
One Sunday I entrained for Baliwag, a town in Bulacan which can well afford to hold two fiestas a year without a qualm.I took the train partly because I am prejudiced in favor of the government-owned railroad, partly because I am allowed comparative comfort in a coach, and finally because trains sometimes leave and arrive according to schedule.In the coach I found a little world, a section of the abstraction called humanity whom we are supposed to love and live for. I had previously arranged to divide the idle hour or so between cultivating my neglected Christianity and smoothing out the rough edges of my nature with the aid of grateful sights without Ã¢â¬â the rolling wheels, the flying huts and trees and light-green palay seedlings and carabaos along the way.Inertia, I suppose, and the sort of reality we moderns know make falling in love with my immediate neighbors often a matter of severe strain and effort to me.Let me give a sketchy picture of the little world whose company Ma ng Kiko shared in moments which soon passed away affecting most of us.First, there came to my notice three husky individuals who dusted their seats furiously with their handkerchiefs without regard to hygiene or the brotherhood of men. It gave me no little annoyance that on such a quiet morning the unpleasant aspects in other people's ways should claim my attention.Then there was a harmless-looking middle-aged man in green camisa de chino with rolled sleeves who must have entered asleep. When I noticed him he was already snugly entrenched in a corner seat, with his slippered feet comfortably planted on the opposite seat, all the while his head danced andÃ dangled with the motion of the train. I could not, for the love of me, imagine how he would look if he were awake.A child of six in the next seat must have shared with me in speculating about the dreams of this sleeping man in green. Was he dreaming of the Second World War or the price of eggs? Had he any worries about the perman ent dominion status or the final outcome of the struggles of the masses, or was it merely the arrangement of the scales on a fighting roaster's legs that brought that frown on his face?But the party that most engaged my attention was a family of eight composed of a short but efficient father, four very young children, mother, grandmother, and another woman who must have been the efficient father's sister. They distributed themselves on four benches Ã¢â¬â you know the kind of seats facing each other so that half the passengers travel backward. The more I looked at the short but young and efficient father the shorter his parts looked to me. His movements were fast and short, too. He removed his coat, folded it carefully and slung it on the back of his seat. Then he pulled out his wallet from the hip pocket and counted his money while his wife and the rest of his group watched the ritual without a word.Then the short, young, and efficient father stood up and pulled out two banana le af bundles from a bamboo basket and spread out both bundles on one bench and log luncheon was ready at ten o'clock. With the efficient father leading the charge, the children (except the baby in his grandmother's arms) began to dig away with little encouragement and aid from the elders. In a short while the skirmish was over, the enemy Ã¢â¬â shrimps, omelet, rice and tomato sauce Ã¢â¬â were routed out, save for a few shrimps and some rice left for the grandmother to handle in her own style later.Then came the water-fetching ritual. The father, with a glass in hand, led the march to the train faucet, followed by three children whose faces still showed the marks of a hard-fought-battle. In passing between me and a person, then engaged in a casual conversation with me, the short but efficient father made a courteous gesture which is still good to see inÃ these democratic days; he bent from the hips and, dropping both hands, made an opening in the air between my collocutor and m e Ã¢â¬â a gesture which in unspoiled places means Ã¢â¬Å"Excuse Me.Ã¢â¬ In one of the stations where the train stopped, a bent old woman in black boarded the train. As it moved away, the old woman went about the coach, begging holding every prospective Samaritan by the arm, and stretching forth her gnarled hand in the familiar fashion so distasteful to me at that time. There is something in begging which destroys some fiber in most men. Ã¢â¬Å"Every time you drop a penny into a beggar's palm you help degrade a man and make it more difficult for him to rise with dignity. . .Ã¢â¬ There was something in his beggar's eye which seemed to demand. Ã¢â¬Å"Now do your duty.Ã¢â¬ And I did. Willy-nilly I dropped a coin and thereby filled my life with repulsion. Is this Christianity? Ã¢â¬Å"Blessed are the poor.Ã¢â¬ But with what speed did that bent old woman cross the platform into the next coach!While thus engaged in unwholesome thought, I felt myself jerked as the train made a c urve to the right. The toddler of the family of eight lost his balance and caught the short but efficient father off-guard. In an instant all his efficiency was employed in collecting the shrieking toddler from under his seat. The child had, in no time, developed two elongated bumps on the head, upon which was applied a moist piece of cloth. There were no reproaches, no words spoken. The discipline in the family was remarkable, or was it because they considered the head as a minor anatomical appendage and was therefore nor worth the fuss?Occasionally, when the child's crying rose above the din of the locomotive and the clinkety-clank of the wheels on the rails, the father would jog about a bit without blushing, look at the bumps on his child's head, shake his own, and move his lips saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Tsk, Tsk.Ã¢â¬ And nothing more.Fairly tired of assuming the minor responsibilities of my neighbors in this little world in motion, I looked into the distant horizon where the blue Cordil leras merged into the blue of the sky. There I rested my thoughtsÃ upon the billowing silver and grey of the clouds, lightly remarking upon their being a trial to us, although they may not know it. We each would mind our own business and suffer in silence for the littlest mistakes of others; laughing at their ways if we happened to be in a position to suspend our emotion and view the whole scene as a god would; or, we could weep for other men if we are the mood to shed copious tears over the whole tragic aspect of a world thrown out of joint.It is strange how human sympathy operates. We assume an attitude of complete indifference to utter strangers whom we have seen but not met. We claim that they are the hardest to fall in love with in the normal exercise of Christian charity. Then a little child falls from a seat, or a beggar stretches forth a gnarled hand, or three husky men dust their seats; and we are, despite our pretensions, affected. Why not? If even a sleeping man who doe s nothing touches our life!
Monday, January 6, 2020
Vaccinations should be Mandatory Did you know the battle over vaccines goes back as far as the Revolutionary War? Vaccines have been an intricate part of our lives. The Vaccination Act of 1853 ordered mandatory vaccinations for infants up to 3 months old, by 1857 the Vaccination Act extended the age requirement to 14 years of age, fines were given to people who refused to get the vaccines. These laws were immediately met with opposition from the citizens who claimed they had the right to control their bodies and those of their children (History). In the Twentieth Century there was an introduction of several vaccines and the diseases of these vaccines were believed to be nearly eliminated. By the twenty- first century we saw a decrease inÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Vaccines were created to protect us from diseases. Most diseases associated with vaccines were highly contagious and are spread from person to person. Before vaccines were created, hundreds of thousands of people were affected by diseases, thousands of people died, and sometimes people were left with debilitating injuries or side effects. After the creation of vaccines, the people affected by diseases dropped and death from these diseases were rarely seen (Why). The vaccines that scientist have created have proven to protect us from diseases. Parents are worried about the safety of vaccines. Parent are worried their child will have an allergic reaction, health problems or even death from the vaccines. Despite parent concerns, vaccinating children has been successfully for decades. It is always better to prevent a disease than to treat it. Ã¢â¬ In fact, there has never been a single credible study linking vaccines to long term health conditionsÃ¢â¬ (Who). Controversy over vaccines has scared parents into not vaccinating their children, but vaccines have been proven to be safe. Vaccines protect the body from infection. When your immune system comes in contact with a bacteria or virus, this infection begins to attack your body. Your immune system then has to fight the infection off, by producing antibodies. People who are vaccinated are introduced to a minor version of an infection, but this infection does not cause infection. This causes theShow MoreRelatedMandatory Vaccination Should Be Mandatory Vaccinations1228 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMandatory vaccinations should be required for all citizens in the U.S. Having mandatory vaccinations will allow for well protected future generations that are susceptible to less health issues. With everyone being vaccinated there will be less occurrences of these diseases and sicknesses allowing future generations a more healthy life with fewer visits to the doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s office and hospital. Another reason to have mandatory vaccinations is that these vaccines are safe and approved by trusted medicalRead MoreMandatory V accination Should Be Mandatory Vaccinations1975 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pageswhen I found out I would be bringing a new life into this world in late August, many thoughts and options began flowing through my head. At this time I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know routine vaccinations were a choice for parents to make, I always thought they were mandatory. This being said, I began my research on the pros and cons of vaccinations. While I learned there are cons of vaccinating children, I also learned that the benefits of routinely vaccinating children significantly outweigh the risks. I chose fromRead MoreMandatory Vaccination Should Be Mandatory Vaccinations3657 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesAssa 1 Christina Assa ENC1101, 1954644 Professor Hofman 30 April 2015 Mandatory Vaccinations There is much debate to whether or not children should or shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be vaccinated. Every day there are many children and even adults who have died from diseases that could have been prevented before they came up. Immunizing our children is important so that they will stay healthy and so will other children around them. Children are at the most risk for developing diseases when they are growing up. TheyRead MoreVaccinations Should Be Mandatory Vaccinations1495 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe government should mandate vaccinations, and although it would sacrifice the liberty and choice for public health it would keep the well-being and health of everyone much more safe and away from the risk of disease. Most people agree that vaccinations should be mandated because of how being vaccinated keeps people safer in public environments since being vaccinated helps stop diseases from being spread, as proven by science, but people who do not agree with vaccination mandation most of the timeR ead MoreVaccination Of Vaccinations Should Be Mandatory1403 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Vaccines Should be Mandatory in Order to Attend School Standard Number 6.4.B Jessica Crowe James H. Groves CEA3 ARGUMENT PAPER Jessica Crowe James H. Groves 30 June 2017 Vaccines Should be Mandatory in order to Attend School Standard Number: 6.4.B Protecting a childÃ¢â¬â¢s health is very important to parents! That is why they should vaccinate them as young children. All children should be required to have vaccinations in order to start school in every state. Each year about 85% ofRead MoreVaccination For Vaccinations Should Be Mandatory982 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBetween 1924 and 2013, vaccinations prevented 103 million cases of polio, measles, rubella, mumps, hepatitis A, diphtheria, and pertussis (Bailey). Vaccinating is Ã¢â¬Å"the process by which pathogenic cells are injected into a healthy person in an attempt to cause the body to develop antibodies to a particular virus or bacteriumÃ¢â¬âsuccessful creation of antibodies is referred to as immunity to the disease caused by the particular pathogenÃ¢â¬ (Introduction to Should Vaccinations be Mandatory). Popular conflictsRead MoreShould Mandatory Vaccination Be Mandatory? Essay2213 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages Mandatory Vaccinations Parents face many different decisions when raising a child; some decisions are trivial, and others can be controversial. Whether or not to vaccinate a child is one of the most controversial choices. So controversial, in fact, that there is a political conversation of making immunizations a requirement. Many people support the movement of making vaccinations mandatory. Proponents argue that vaccines save lives, vaccine-preventable diseases have not been eradicated, and vaccinesRead MoreVaccination Of Vaccinations Should Be Mandatory1375 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesVaccines should be Mandatory in order to Attend School Standard Number: 6.4.B Protecting a childÃ¢â¬â¢s health is very important to parents! That is why they should vaccinate them as a young child. All children should be required to have vaccinations in order to start school in every state. Each year about 85% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s youth receive vaccines that protect them against several diseases like, tuberculosis, pneumococcus, and many more. Even with great success, and improvements with vaccinations, more thanRead MoreShould Vaccinations Be Mandatory?1652 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAudrey Miller Research Paper Draft Laura Thompson 10/21/15 Should Vaccinations be Mandatory? In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, it is very common for parents to have their children vaccinated and to be vaccinated themselves. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Source 1), more than 80% of children from the ages of 19 months to 35 months were immunized for several different diseases. I myself have always been vaccinated, but I believe that it is a personÃ¢â¬â¢s right to decide whether or notRead MoreVaccinations Should Be Mandatory Essay1257 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfeared disease. But thanks to doctors like Dr. Salk, doctors have developed a vaccination for other diseases, not just polio, which helped eradicate and eliminate many diseases that have killed millions in the past. Today, many American parents refuse to vaccinate their children due to a variety of unfounded fears. Vaccinations should be mandatory, unless a person has a medical condition that says otherwise. These vaccinations are vital to the control and eradication of deadly infectious diseases a nd